The Boer Wars (Afrikaans: Vryheidsoorloë, literally "freedom wars") were two wars fought during 1880–1881 and 1899–1902 by the British Empire against the Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Republic. They are sometimes referred to as "the South African War" in South Africa since the black population of South Africa was also involved in the conflicts.The First Anglo-Boer War (1880–1881), was a rebellion of Boers (farmers) against British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence. The conflict occurred against the backdrop of the Pretoria government becoming increasingly ineffective at dealing with growing claims on South African land from rival interests within the country.
- The war was between the Transvaal Boers and the British.
- When the British annexed Transvaal in 1877 the Boers were angered.
- In 1877, the Pedi attacked the Boers of Transvaal, and Boers claimed the British had not adequately assisted them.
- The Transvaal population included many who were in debt to Cape bankers, perhaps adding to negative British perception of the Boers.
- The British wished to bring Transvaal by force into a union, which furthered chances of war.
- The British defeat by Zulus in 1879 at the Battle of Isandlwana had encouraged Boers to armed resistance.